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Greek Fonts PrimerKeywords: greek fonts, Win98, WinME, Win2000, WinXP, MacOS, DOS, iso-8859-7, cp-1253, cp-737, cp-851, monotonic, modern greek, Internet Explorer, Outlook, NetscapeMail, Safari, mail.app
Date last modified: (this document was originally created in June-1995, to allow people to read the first greek newspapers on the Internet Makedonia and Thessaloniki on-line).
Summary: This document provides a primer on greek language computing TODAY, in all computers reasonably current (ie Win98, MacOS 8.x, X11R6 or later) using the encodings iso-8859-7 / win-1253.
This document doesn't cover polytonic greek (used mostly by academics studying classic/ancient greek literature, e.g. Homer or Thucydides), if you're looking for that, please skip directly to info on polytonic (classic/ancient greek) fonts
We suggest options for email and Web-browser software apps (Win: Outlook, Netscape 4.x and 7.x - Mac: Safari and Mail.App) which work correctly with Greek, and configuration settings. Also updated the part about Greek under MSDOS, because many commercial applications (e.g. book-keeping) in Greece still run under DOS using IBM DOS codepage 737 (or in text-mode under Win). Mac users look at Greek for MacOS (Mac info is for modern, not ancient/classic greek).
Beware that some products/fonts offered for sale or for free (mostly for polytonic greek), implement Greek support in non-standard ways.
Windows users read this before downloading files from Internet: If you want to read/write/print MODERN greek (e.g. view greek Websites, send email in greek etc, which are ALL using monotonic iso-8859-7 standard), before you rush to download and install greek fonts from the Internet, take a few minutes to read the rest of this document.
Selected links about Greece: We have prepared a selection of interesting greek Websites about the city of Thessaloniki, the region of Macedonia and Greece in general.
Outdated sites: At all sites we've checked recently, the fonts / instructions offered for download and installation of modern (monotonic) greek fonts, are dated back to 1995-1998 time period, before Unicode fonts became part of modern operating systems (Win98 PanEuropean edition, Apple MacOS 8.x etc). Those old greek font files (usually arial.exe/.zip containing the TTF fonts by Pouliadis or Magenta, dated 1992) offered for download, don't support multiple encodings and the quality (on screen and in print) is poor by today's standards. These old font files should only be used with Win95, as the language support pack by Microsoft itself is no longer available.
But for Win98/Win98SE or later (NT4, WinME, Win2000, WinXP) your computer's fonts most probably ALREADY SUPPORT (monotonic) greek (and many other languages). So be careful that any fonts you download don't overwrite your system fonts.Background on monotonic vs polytonic: There are two different types of greek language, each requiring different fonts:
If you have an old installation of Win98, you should go to Windows Update and download the PanEuropean Language Support pack. Also read:
Which standard Win TrueType fonts support greek: The TrueType fonts supplied with the Windows operating system since Win98SE, WinNT4 e.g.
Application support required: Still, even though your computer may have greek fonts, the APPLICATION software program (e.g. MS Outlook) needs to support Greek (basically non-Latin character sets) as well. Some don't, or don't work very well.
How to configure the Web-browser
In order for a Web page to display Greek correctly in a browser the <HEAD> section of the HTML source code must contain the following tag:
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-7">
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=windows-1253">
more information about this at W3C Internationalisation.
Writing greek: To WRITE greek as well, you need to go to your OS control panel and install a keyboard driver. (Windows » Start » Settings » Control Panel » Keyboard » Language » Add)
For professionals: If you are a graphics designer or typographer, looking for typefaces other than the ones supplied with the base operating systems, note that many high-quality typefaces for greek are in Adobe Postscript (Type 1) format (vs TrueType), as most professional graphics designers in Greece used Macs and Adobe technology. Beware that those fonts use the "Mac Greek" encoding, different from other encodings and so you won't be able to transfer text between applications on different platforms (e.g. QuarkXpress on Mac -> Win). Apple kept their own incompatible encoding for Greek despite greek customer complaints, a very bad decision. Every other OS switched to the official standard of iso-8859-7 after 1996.
The TrueType fonts by MonoType (Arial, Times New Roman etc) which are bundled by Microsoft with Windows are of very good quality, but many other TT fonts aren't suitable for pro work (no kerning, no hinting, not many weights etc). Look at Adobe, LinoType and Monotype for pro fonts.
Polytonic fonts (for ancient/classical greek): This document deals with modern greek issues only, for classic greek please visit
Other useful resources/links about fonts to visit are:
To correctly display the greek WWW pages on your screen, your system needs to support Greek according to the standard ISO 8859-7. If it doesn't, you need to install a suitable Greek "font". You also need to correctly configure your WWW-browser (Netscape, Mosaic etc).
We provide the software and instructions on how to do this on various platforms. Note that sofar our solutions enable you to view/print greek text (but not actually write Greek on all systems).
MS Windows 95To access greek characters, if you are using Windows 95 / Window 98, you need to activate 'Multilanguage Support'. Select 'Control Panel', from the 'Settings...' option on the 'Start' button menu. Select 'Add/Remove Programs'. Select the 'Windows Setup' tab, select 'Multilanguage Support' and then click on 'details...'. Select the components you require and then click 'Okay'. Unfortunately Windows 3.x does not let you access these additional characters, and the 3.5" disk version of Windows 95 does not include Multilanguage Support.
Macintosh / System 8.5 or laterFor suggestions about Web browsing and email applications which support greek, please look at Greek Web/email applications for MacOS. Note: Macs have their own proprietary encoding for Greek (Greek [Mac]), a left-over from the late 1980s. Apple, maybe listening to their distributor for the greek market (Rainbow), has resisted changing to the formal standard encoding for Greek iso-8859-7, and kept their own propriertary and incompatible encoding. As explained in this document, all greek content since 1997 is available in iso-8859-7.
Newer versions of MacOS support iso-8859-7 greek in Unicode fonts, so you need to specify a Unicode font as default font for your browser and e-mail. Problems could only arise, if a web-page specifies a font-face / glyph (e.g. Arial, Times New Roman, Sans Serif etc) for which MacOS hasn't a Unicode font.
For more info / discussion of greek support under Mac, please visit:
DOS (and DOS terminal mode under Win98, WinME etc)Windows 2000 - DOS based programs - Greek Keyboard Has Incorrect Mapping for MS-DOS-Based Programs
These solutions REQUIRE a VGA graphics adapter (Hercules etc not supported). All PCs after 1995 come with a VGA-compatible graphics card, so you should be fine. The greek screen fonts are loaded via software into the adapter (software screen fonts), vs changing the VGA ROM itself, as was the case in the early 1990s in Greece.
To PRINT greek under DOS (for applications like book-keeping, invoicing etc), you need to either get a replacement EPROM or (most likely) download printer software fonts.
TSR software loaded in DOS window (recommended): Get abcgrl.zip (4KBytes), run the TSR com file and follow instructions. It offers support for ISO 8859-7 (ELOT 928) and older, obsolete character sets (851, 437). Switch to ELOT 928 with Alt-3. Other options are IBM 851 (Alt-2) and IBM 437 (Alt-1). Note: Legacy software is written with IBM DOS CodePage 737 character set (Alt-1). Alt-1 means to CONCURRENTLY press the Alt-key and the "1"-key (not on the numeric keypad)
Method using tools provided by Microsoft: Another way, using the DOS-supplied programs for handling different codepages, uses a CPI file. Get dosgreek.zip (12 KB) a ZIP file which contains GAUSS.CPI and GRKEYB.COM. To add the Greek Font GAUSS.CPI under DOS 6.xx or DOS 7.0/Win95.
1) Add the following lines to your CONFIG.SYS file: if you have DOS 7.0/Win95 DEVICE=C:\WIN95\COMMAND\DISPLAY.SYS CON=(EGA,,1) COUNTRY=xxx,737,C:\WIN95\COMMAND\COUNTRY.SYS if you have DOS 6.22 or earlier DEVICE=C:\DOS\DISPLAY.SYS CON=(EGA,,1) COUNTRY=xxx,737,C:\DOS\COUNTRY.SYS where xxx is your country code. 2) Add the following lines to your AUTOEXEC.BAT file: if you have DOS 7.0/Win95 C:\WIN95\COMMAND\MODE CON CODEPAGE PREPARE=((437) C:\path\GAUSS.CPI) C:\WIN95\MODE CON CODEPAGE SELECT=437 if you have DOS 6.22 or earlier C:\DOS\MODE CON CODEPAGE PREPARE=((437) C:\path\GAUSS.CPI) C:\DOS\MODE CON CODEPAGE SELECT=437 where path is where is the GAUSS.CPI file. 3) Restart the computer. To Add Greek DOS Keyboard driver add the following line to your CONFIG.SYS file: INSTALL=C:\path\GRKEYB.COM where "path" is where is the GRKEYB.COM file. The swap between the Greek and US Keyboard is with Ctrl-Alt-Space.
X11 Window System Release 5 or laterGet file X11_greek_fonts.tar.z (58 KB) and decompress it with GNU gzip.
You can find an excellent description on installing Greek under X11 in [Greek in X11] Consult the manual of your system for details.